Air mattresses use inflatable materials. One of the most common airbed materials is polyvinyl chloride, which is more commonly known as PVC. People usually associate PVC with pipes, but the PVC in airbeds is significantly softer. You may think of these as vinyl air mattresses.
Some higher-end airbed options use rubber, rubber composites, or thermoplastic polyurethane, which is better known as TPU. Rubber airbeds are often more durable, but the durability can vary from model to model, and the lifespan of an airbed depends on how you use it.
While all mattresses have air and durable material to encase the air, there is one more component that people often overlook: a pump. In past decades, users inflated some air mattresses by blowing into them. Those days are thankfully over, but some air mattresses still have manual pumps that you use for inflation. Most models now have electric pumps that use a small motor with battery power to draw air into the airbed.